CTCAE stands for Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; these criteria are also called "common toxicity criteria." In CTCAE, an adverse event (AE) is defined as any abnormal clinical finding temporally associated with the use of a therapy; causality is not required. These criteria are used for the management of chemotherapy administration and dosing, and in clinical trials to provide standardization and consistency in the definition of treatment-related toxicity. A comprehensive listing is available from the NCI at NCI CTCAE .
Use of the CVE list along with identifying IT and data assets are necessary first steps in conducting an internal risk assessment of an organization. The risk and vulnerability assessor should first identify all known IT assets and build an IT asset inventory using a spreadsheet or similar tool. Then, for each IT asset, the assessor should list the firmware, the operating system software, the application software, and the software patches and their version numbers currently loaded in that IT asset. Using the CVE list, a quick global search on known software vulnerabilities to the organization’s IT asset list can be conducted, especially if the software version and software patch numbers from the software vendor can be obtained. This quick examination of known software vulnerabilities will help an organization uncover known software vulnerabilities. This information can be used to assess whether the value of the IT asset or the data asset requires remediation.
Where rock is encountered at the foundation level, often the appropriate solution is to use a free standing wall such as crib or tieback. If the rock can be drilled economically and the rock is competent (say equivalent to weak concrete) then cantilever posts may be embedded. The hole should be drilled at the recommended diameter to an embedment depth equal to twice this diameter. The shape of the excavation should be parallel sided to prevent the post rotating out.
Slab posts are only useful for low cantilever wall heights. They are used with the flat face against the horizontal walers, enabling the wale joins to be concealed. Because wood has been sawn off the pole in the most stressed regions to produce the slab, slabs are much weaker than poles. As a general rule for light duty walls, a slab 100mm between flat faces can be substituted for a 100mm dia pole (the slab having come from a 125mm round).
Any extra vertical load on top of the retained soil results in increased lateral force on the wall. This extra load can be in the form of a sloping backfill surface (often referred to as a surcharge angle) temporary or moving loads eg. building material (temporarily stored) or a vehicle, a building or swimming pool or other retaining walls stepped one above the other.
Tie-back walls are a type of closed face crib without a complete rear face. Lack of the rear face enclosure prevents them acting as efficiently as a crib and consequently are appropriate for low wall heights. They suit terracing and integration with the garden. These have to be custom designed by engineers.
Twin posts, instead of one, are usually not an efficient solution as more volume of timber is needed to provide the same strength. However, for some cantilever walls it may be appropriate to use twin posts especially if the wall changes direction. The posts can be put together to conceal horizontal waler ends or can be placed apart to make for more economical waling. Post diameters need to be 80% of that nominated for single posts (since the strength of the post is a function of the cube of its diameter).
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Retaining Wall Terminology (44KB)
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