Examples of ethnography essays

Researchers have begun to explore the intersection of diversity, transformative learning, and autoethnography. Glowacki-Dudka, Treff, and Usman (2005) [6] first proposed autoethnography as a tool to encourage diverse learners to share diverse worldviews in the classroom and other settings. Both transformative learning and autoethnography are steeped in an epistemological worldview that reality is ever-changing and largely based on individual reflexivity. Drick Boyd (2008) [7] examines the impact of white privilege on a diverse group of individuals. Through the autoethnographical process and transformative learning he comes to appreciate the impact of "whiteness" on his own actions and those of others. Similarly, Brent Sykes (2014) [8] employs autoethnography to make meaning of his identity as both Native American and caucasian. In his implications, he challenges higher education institutions and educators to provide spaces for learners to engage in autoethnography as a tool to promote transformative learning.

Common taboos involve restrictions or ritual regulation of killing and hunting; sex and sexual relationships (primarily incest , necrophilia , miscegenation , adultery , fornication , pedophilia , homosexuality , voyeurism , bestiality , Masturbation , and paraphilia , circumcision , bisexuality , heterosexuality , transgression , transsexuality , prostitution , sexuality ecc...); reproduction ( abortion , infanticide ); the dead and their graves; as well as food and dining (primarily cannibalism and dietary laws such as vegetarianism , kashrut , and halal ) or religious ( treif and haram ). In Madagascar , a strong code of taboos, known as fady , cannibalism as in equal measure in some Sub-Saharan and Asian African areas constantly change and are formed from new experiences. Each region, village or tribe may have its own fady .

African Traditional Religion is a thriving scholarly business, but a serious disconnect exists between contributions that celebrate a generalized African Traditional Religion and those that describe particular religions and aspects of religion on the basis of ethnographic and archival research. The generalizations begin by citing allegedly negative characterizations of African culture: it is argued that African beliefs and practices are misunderstood and unjustly condemned, that Africans are everywhere and always profoundly religious, and that their religion or religions are comparable to religions anywhere else. On the other hand, historians and anthropologists, skeptical with regard to abstractions and generalizations, focus on the religion of particular peoples to show how belief and practice fit into everyday life. They struggle with epistemological questions such as, “On what evidentiary basis can an individual or group be said to “believe” in anything?”. There is little dialogue between the two points of view, but the readings suggested in this section reveal some of the differences. Chidi Denis Isizoh’s website carries links to a variety of essays on traditional religion and its relations with Christianity and Islam; it also includes Ejizu’s overview ( Emergent Key Issues in the Study of African Traditional Religions ). More and more material is available on the Internet, notably at African Traditional Religion , but not all of it should be regarded as representative or authoritative. Journals such as the London-based Africa , Cahiers d’Études Africaines (Paris), and the Journal of Religion in Africa (Leiden, The Netherlands) publish articles on religion from time to time, representing the latest thinking. The edited collections Blakely, et al. 1994 ; Olupona and Nyang 1993 ; and Olupona 2000 provide essays on specific examples of African religion by leading scholars, while implicitly illustrating the gap between “spiritual” and “ethnographic” approaches. None of this literature, however, deals with the radical objections raised in Criticism concerning the definition of religion, the errors introduced by intercultural translation, and the depth of outside influence on supposedly timeless “traditional religion.”

Examples of ethnography essays

examples of ethnography essays

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